These are the ancient guides of the underworld and the afterlife. The gods and goddesses of Ancient Egypt were an integral part of people's everyday lives. It is not surprising then that there were over 2,000 deities in the Egyptian pantheon. These gods all had names, individual personalities, and characteristics wore different kinds of clothing, held different objects as sacred, presided over their own domains of influence, and reacted in highly individualistic ways to events. Each deity had their own area of expertise but was often associated with several spheres of human life. For the list of Egyptian gods and goddess, we’re focusing specifically on Egyptian mythology only no pharaohs or Greek gods will be included.
MUT: The Mother Goddess
Mut means “mother” in Egyptian, and Mut is a primal deity who wears two crowns on her head, each representing Upper and Lower Egypt. Also titled “She who gives birth, but was herself not born of any,” Mut is represented as a vulture in hieroglyphs. She is variously integrated with other deities and is often portrayed as a cat, cobra, cow and even a lioness. The mother of Khonsu, Mut and her different associations was worshiped by numerous different pharaohs.
OSIRIS: The King of the Living
This God Osiris Considered the oldest child of the earth god Zeb and the sky goddess Nut, Osiris was worshiped as the god of the afterlife as the ancient Egyptians believed there was life after death. Often portrayed with green skin, Osiris was the god of vegetation which indicated renewal and growth and was thought to be responsible for the fertile flooding and vegetation around the banks of the Nile. Osiris married his own sister Isis and was murdered by his brother Seth. Despite being murdered by his own brother, Osiris was brought back to life by the magic of Isis to conceive a child. Horus is the son of Osiris and Isis who avenged his father’s death and arose as a new Pharoah of Egypt while Osiris became the god of the underworld and assisted in the afterlife of the pharaohs and the people.
SETH: God of Chaos
Seth was the god of chaos, violence, deserts, and storms. In the Osiris myth, he is the murderer of Osiris (in some versions of the myth, he tricks Osiris into laying down in a coffin and then seals it shut.) Seth’s appearance poses a problem for Egyptologists. He is often depicted as an animal or as a human with the head of an animal. But they can’t figure out what animal he’s supposed to be. He usually has a long snout and long ears that are squared at the tips. In his fully animal form, he has a thin doglike body and a straight tail with a tuft on the end. Many scholars now believe that no such animal ever existed and that the Seth animal is some sort of mythical composite.
HORUS: God of Vengeance
One of the most important ancient Egyptian gods was the son of Osiris and Isis. According to the famous myth, he revenged his father’s murder and killed his uncle, Seth, by which he established himself as the new king of Egypt. The early Egyptian pharaohs, therefore, legitimized their rule by presenting themselves as incarnated Horus. Also worshiped as the god of light and sky, Horus was usually depicted as a falcon-headed male creature wearing a white and red crown.
ANUBIS: The Divine Embalmer
Anubis, another god of the dead who had the head of a jackal was specifically involved in mummification. Embalmers often wore jackal masks when preparing the dead to travel to the underworld. Anubis would weigh the heart of the dead person to decide if the person would be allowed to enter the realm of the dead.
RA: God of the Sun and Radiance
Ra or Re was the sun god and one of the most important ancient Egyptian deities. He was also associated with pyramid building and the resurrection of the pharaohs. Symbolically born every morning with sunrise, Ra symbolically died with every sunset after which he began his journey into the underworld. In the later period, Ra became closely associated with Horus and just like the latter, he was usually portrayed as a falcon-headed man. However, rather than with white and red crown, Ra was depicted wearing a solar disc on his head.
AMUN: The Hidden One
Amun or Amon which translates into “The Hidden One” was the head of the Theban pantheon of gods and goddesses. Worshiped as the king of gods (similarly as Zeus by ancient Greeks), Amun was usually painted in a human form but he was sometimes also portrayed with the ram’s head. Like many other ancient Egyptian gods and goddesses that were eventually assimilated with their local/regional versions, Amun was later merged with Ra into Amun-Ra which remained the chief god throughout the period of ancient Egypt.
THOTH: God of Greatness
Thoth, the god of writing and wisdom, could be depicted in the form of a baboon or a sacred ibis or as a man with the head of an ibis. He was believed to have invented language and the hieroglyphic script and to serve as a scribe and adviser for the gods. As the god of wisdom, Thoth was said to possess knowledge of magic and secrets unavailable to the other gods.
ISIS: Goddess of love
Isis was a goddess in Egyptian mythology. She was a caring goddess and loved all, even her envious brother Set. She was the sister and wife of Osiris, and they had a son named Horus. Isis also protected children, healed the sick, and was the goddess of life and magic
GEB: God of Earth
Geb Also described as the Father of Snakes, Geb represented crops and healing. With a goose on his head, this bearded god was believed to have caused earthquakes whenever he laughed. He was the son of Shu (the god of air) and Tefnut (the goddess of moisture) and had an important role in the Book of the Dead as the one who weighs the heart of the dead in the Judgment Hall of Osiris. The ancient Egyptians believed that he retained the souls of the wicked.