Information Minister Fawad Chaudhry just asked Britain empire to apology and return the diamond called Koh-i-Noor.

 

Kohinoor is one of the oldest diamond in the world. Kohinoor has been one of the most famous diamonds in human history. Its name is derived from the Persian word Koh-i-Noor means the mountain of light.

The theory says that the diamond was first mentioned more than 5000 years ago in Sanskrit (Hindu sacred script). It might have been syamantaka (the famous jewel in Hindu mythology) at the time but as of now, this theory is almost like speculation.

The origins of Kohinoor are disputed. However, it is generally agreed that it came from a mine in South India. This could have been either from present-day Karnataka. Although the exact origin is very difficult to know. Most probably the diamond was first discovered during the region of the Wodiyars rulers.

In 1304, when Alauddin Khilji who was the first ruler of Khilji dynasty of the Delhi sultanate attacked south India in the early 14th century his army looted the kingdoms of southern India.

Malik Kafur who was Alauddin Khiljis general at the time actually attacked Warangal successfully and possibly acquired the diamond. Kohinoor remained in the Khilji dynasty for some time.

It was later passed on to each successive dynasty of the Delhi Sultanate. When Babar established the Mughal empire in 1526 by defeating the Lodhi dynasty, He came into the possession of the diamond. He actually is reported to have called the stone the “Diamond of Babar” even though it had other names before it came into his possession.

Babur and his son Humayun have mentioned the diamond in their memoirs which actually serve as the earliest reliable reference Koh-i-Noor.

Shah Jahan who was the fifth Mughal emperor placed the stone into his Peacock Throne.

Another theory says that while the diamond was in possession of Aurangzeb, he got it out and reduced weight substantially. Again according to recent studies, this theory is not correct.

When Nader Shah invaded Delhi in 1739, the treasury of the Mughal empire was looted by his army. Nader Shah actually carried out a through plunder of the Mughal empire wealth. He took along with him several items which included the Peacock Throne and the Kohinoor.

When Nader Shah allegedly saw the diamond, he exclaimed Koh-i-Noor which means mountains of light. Which is how the stone finally got its current name.

The lost gained from the Indian campaign was so much that Nader Shah exempted all subject from taxes for three years. After Nader Shah empires collapsed in 1747, the diamond was given by his grandson to Ahmad Shah Durrani who was the founder of the Afghan empire.

One of Ahmed's descendants named Shah Shujah Durrani actually wore a bracelet which contained Kohinoor. Shujah later ended up forming an alliance with the United Kingdom to help defend against the possible invasion of Afghanistan by Russia.

When Shuhjah was overthrown by Mahmud Shah, he managed to flee with the diamond and went to LAHORE. He met the founder of Sikh empire Maharaja Ranjit Singh. He gave the gem to him in return for his hospitality.

Maharaja Ranjit Singh, in his will, mentioned that the Kohinoor will become the property of East India Company administrated temple of Jagannath in Puri. However, he will not be executed after his death in 1839.

When the kingdom of Punjab was formally annexed to the company rule in 1849 following the Second Anglo Sikh war, Kohinoor was officially ceded to Queen Victoria.

In 1850, the diamond was sent on a ship to Britain via China. It was presented to Queen Victoria at Buckingham Palace on the occasion of the company’s 250th anniversary.

Prince Albert, who was the husband of Queen Victoria, was asked to get the diamond polished with the consent of the government. This operation actually reduced the weight of the diamond by 42 percent to 105.6 carats.

When Queen Victoria died, Kohinoor was passed on to Queen Alexandra and later to Queen Mary and Queen Elizabeth. It was eventually transferred to queen mothers crown in 1937. All these crowns are now on display in jewel house at the tower of London.

In fact, India, Pakistan, Iran, and Afghanistan have all demanded ownership of Kohinoor at several points and asked for its return from the United Kingdom.