In terms of Biology, race doesn't Exist.
Though, it's important to understand that it’s cultural, that humans created and has nothing to do with our biology! There are no distinct genetic boundaries for the groups commonly called races.
Traditionally, scientists have used “race” to refer to subspecies and what determines a subspecies from species varies among taxa. But in humans, there are no distinct genetics boundaries for the groups commonly called races and we have only .1% variation within our species versus chimpanzees which have .7% variations. Now there is genetic variation within and between populations but it is quite small and the most amount of genetic variation found within our species isn’t between those of European and African ancestry.
It's between various populations within Africa. This is called the “Founder effect” or a “reduced genetic diversity in a population founded by a small number of individuals”. Scientists refer to races as “ populations” or “ethnic groups” and many of the physical characterizations that are associated with race are due to adaptation to climate and environment. This can include skin color, height, nose shape.
These slight morphological differences are called clines- they are genetic adaptations to the environment over time and a geographic area. It's about clines, not clades. Meaning that the variations between populations of our species are rather small versus being another branch in the old’ evolutionary family tree. There is also the idea that certain races are more susceptible to certain illnesses, such as heart disease and diabetes in African Americans. However, extensive research has shown that these illnesses are highly correlated with diet, stress, and socioeconomic standing-thus, it’s a lot more complex than just saying certain “races” are more likely to suffer from certain illnesses than others.
We’ve established that race as a scientific concept does not exist, so if the race doesn’t exist then why are people racist?
Are we born to be wary of the other or is this learned behavior?
The history of racism and the concept of race in his book” The Myth of Race”. He stresses that racism is a learned behavior or idealogy that can be avoided if parents teach their children to be open and tolerant.
Searching for “pure blood” is a ridiculous idea considering there has never been a point in time when any population could be considered “pure”. This idealogy, rooted in a racist political and religious agenda, continued and was used by the Nazis to justify their goal to create an “Aryan race” which led to the murder of 6 million Jews and millions murder of 6 million Jews and millions of others who were deemed inferior including gypsies, homosexual and transgender individuals.
But what if the Nazi Agenda worked?
We would probably all speak German, but we might also have a population of people who are considered “purer” in terms of lower genetic diversity. But low genetic diversity is usually the result of long-term inbreeding. So we’d have a population of inbreds that would also inherit a slew of genetic ailments associated with inbreeding.
How's that for the not so fabulous result of genetic “purity”?
Genetic diversity is good for us. It leads to robust and healthy offspring, and who doesn’t want that? Scientifically speaking, there's only one race the human race. We’re all pretty much the same.
We argue that the nature of racism has changed, but it still remains, mainly in more subtle, insidious forms. We conclude that race cannot be simply ‘added on’ to class. Race changes how the class works, how it is experienced, and the subjectivities available to individuals. The paper illustrates how the two intersect, in complex ways, in different historical ‘moments’.